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Medication and Depression: An In-depth Look at Contemporary Treatments

Medication can be a lifeline for many with depression, but what happens when it leads to a foggy mind? Dive…


Disclaimer: This article discusses topics related to depression, medication, and mental health. Some content might be triggering for some readers. If you’re feeling overwhelmed, please seek professional help or speak to someone you trust.


Depression, often described as a shadow that dims the vibrancy of life, is a complex mental health disorder that has been a part of human history for centuries. Its pervasive nature affects individuals across ages, cultures, and socioeconomic backgrounds, making it a global health concern. Characterised by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities, depression can profoundly impact daily functioning and overall quality of life.

The World Health Organisation estimates that over 264 million people worldwide suffer from depression, making it the leading cause of disability. The multifaceted nature of depression means that its origins can be biological, psychological, or environmental, often intertwining in intricate ways that are unique to each individual.

In our quest to understand and manage depression, therapeutic interventions have been the cornerstone. However, as science advances, so does our understanding of the role medications play in alleviating depressive symptoms. This article aims to shed light on the current landscape of antidepressant medications, their mechanisms, benefits, potential side effects, and the hope they bring to those grappling with this debilitating condition.

The Evolving Understanding of Depression:

Historically, depression was often misunderstood and stigmatised, with sufferers sometimes being labelled as weak or lacking willpower. However, as time progressed, so did our comprehension of this intricate condition. Today, we recognise depression as a genuine medical illness that has tangible effects on the brain and body.

Research over the past few decades has illuminated the biological underpinnings of depression. Advanced imaging techniques, such as MRI and PET scans, have revealed structural and functional changes in the brains of individuals with depression. These changes often occur in areas responsible for mood regulation, cognition, and decision-making.

Furthermore, studies have shown that neurotransmitters, the brain’s chemical messengers, play a pivotal role in mood regulation. Imbalances in neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine have been linked to depression. Genetic research has also indicated that individuals with a family history of depression may be more susceptible, suggesting a hereditary component.

Environmental factors, such as traumatic events, prolonged stress, or significant life changes, can also trigger or exacerbate depressive episodes. The interplay between one’s genes and environment, known as the gene-environment interaction, is a burgeoning area of research that seeks to understand the multifactorial origins of depression.

Psycho-social theories have also contributed to our understanding. The cognitive theory, for instance, suggests that negative thought patterns and beliefs can predispose individuals to depression. Similarly, the psychodynamic theory delves into unresolved childhood conflicts and their role in adult depression.

In essence, our understanding of depression has evolved from viewing it as a mere character flaw to recognising it as a complex interplay of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. This holistic understanding has paved the way for more comprehensive and empathetic treatment approaches, combining both medication and psychotherapy, such as the services that I offer at Therapy with Tom.

Medications: More Than Just Serotonin Boosters:

When most people think of antidepressants, they often envision medications that simply boost serotonin levels. While it’s true that many antidepressants, particularly the popular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), work by increasing serotonin availability in the brain, the story of antidepressant medication is far more intricate.

  1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): These are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. They work by blocking the reabsorption of serotonin, making more of this neurotransmitter available in the brain. Examples include fluoxetine (Prozac), citalopram (Celexa), and paroxetine (Paxil).
  2. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): These target both serotonin and norepinephrine, another neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation. Examples include duloxetine (Cymbalta) and venlafaxine (Effexor XR).
  3. Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs): An older class of antidepressants, TCAs affect multiple neurotransmitters, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. While effective, they often come with more side effects than newer medications. Examples are amitriptyline and nortriptyline.
  4. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs): These are some of the earliest antidepressants. They work by inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Due to potential side effects and dietary restrictions, they are less commonly prescribed today. Phenelzine (Nardil) is an example.
  5. Atypical Antidepressants: These don’t fit neatly into other categories and have unique mechanisms of action. Bupropion (Wellbutrin), for instance, affects dopamine and norepinephrine but not serotonin.
  6. Neuroactive Steroid Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Receptor Modulators: A newer class, these drugs, like brexanolone, are being explored for their rapid antidepressant effects, especially in postpartum depression.

It’s crucial to understand that the brain’s neurotransmitter system is a complex web of interactions. Altering one neurotransmitter can have cascading effects on others. This is why some people may respond well to one medication but not another, and why finding the right medication often involves trial and error.

Moreover, while medications can be immensely helpful, they are not a one-size-fits-all solution. Many individuals benefit from a combination of medication and psychotherapy. In fact, research has shown that for many, this combination can be more effective than either treatment alone.

The ‘Depression Fog’ Conundrum:

The term ‘depression fog’ is often used to describe the cognitive impairments that many individuals with depression experience. It’s not just a feeling of sadness or hopelessness; it’s a heavy cloud that seems to envelop one’s mind, making even the simplest tasks feel insurmountable.

  1. Cognitive Symptoms: Many people with depression report difficulties with concentration, decision-making, and memory. It’s as if the brain is operating in a slower, more laborious mode. Simple decisions, like what to have for breakfast, can become agonising deliberations.
  2. Physical Sensations: The fog isn’t just mental. Many describe it as a physical weight, a heaviness that makes every movement feel like wading through treacle. This can be accompanied by a sense of detachment, as if one is observing the world through a thick pane of glass.
  3. Emotional Numbness: Paradoxically, while depression is often associated with profound sadness, the ‘fog’ can also manifest as a numbing of emotions. Joy, sadness, excitement – all can feel muted, distant, or even entirely out of reach.
  4. Impact on Daily Life: The fog can be incredibly disruptive. Tasks that once were routine can become challenging. Work projects pile up, personal hygiene can decline, and social connections can wither as the energy and motivation to maintain them dissipate.
  5. Medication’s Role: While antidepressants aim to lift mood and alleviate the symptoms of depression, they can sometimes contribute to the fog, especially during the initial stages of treatment. Some people experience side effects like drowsiness, dizziness, or mental clouding. However, these effects often diminish as the body adjusts to the medication.
  6. Navigating the Fog: It’s essential to communicate with healthcare professionals about any feelings of ‘fog’ or cognitive impairment. Adjustments in medication type or dosage can sometimes help. Additionally, cognitive-behavioural therapy and other therapeutic techniques can offer strategies to cope with and navigate through the fog.

Understanding the ‘depression fog’ is crucial, not just for those experiencing it but also for their loved ones. It’s more than just feeling ‘down’ – it’s a multifaceted symptom that can profoundly impact every aspect of life.

The Power of Psychotherapy:

Medications undoubtedly play a pivotal role in managing depression, but the transformative power of psychotherapy is equally significant. According to a comprehensive Health Technology Assessment, psychotherapy has demonstrated marked efficacy in treating major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. The therapeutic process offers a safe space for individuals to explore their emotions, confront traumatic experiences, and develop coping strategies. At Therapy with Tom, individuals can benefit from a range of therapeutic interventions, each tailored to address specific needs and challenges. The collaborative nature of therapy ensures that individuals are active participants in their healing journey, fostering resilience and self-awareness.

A Holistic View:

In the quest to manage depression, a holistic approach that encompasses both mind and body is emerging as a promising paradigm. This approach goes beyond traditional treatments to incorporate practices that nurture overall well-being:

  1. Mindfulness Practices: Engaging in mindfulness meditation and deep breathing exercises can help anchor the mind, reduce anxiety, and enhance emotional regulation.
  2. Physical Activity: Regular exercise releases endorphins, the body’s natural mood elevators. Whether it’s a brisk walk, yoga, or a gym session, physical activity can significantly alleviate depressive symptoms.
  3. Dietary Modifications: Nutrition plays a pivotal role in mental health. A study exploring the malnutrition-depression link highlights the profound impact of dietary choices on emotional well-being. Consuming a balanced diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and essential vitamins can bolster mental health.


The realm of depression treatment is dynamic and multifaceted. As research advances and our understanding deepens, an integrated approach that combines medications, therapy, and holistic practices is emerging as the gold standard. It’s crucial for individuals to stay informed, engage in open dialogue with healthcare professionals, and seek treatments that align with their unique circumstances and aspirations. The journey to mental well-being is deeply personal, but with the right resources and support, a fulfilling and balanced life is attainable.


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  • Firth, J., Marx, W., Dash, S., Carney, R., Teasdale, S.B., Solmi, M., … & Sarris, J. (2019). The effects of dietary improvement on symptoms of depression and anxiety: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychosomatic Medicine, 81(3), 265.
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2009). Depression in adults: recognition and management. Retrieved from NICE website.
  • Sinyor, M., Schaffer, A., & Levitt, A. (2010). The sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D) trial: a review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(3), 126-135.
  • Therapy with Tom. (n.d.). Therapeutic interventions. Retrieved from Therapy with Tom website.
  • World Health Organization. (2017). Depression and other common mental disorders: global health estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Useful Resources:

Tom Konieczny

Tom is a qualified integrative psychotherapist based in the UK. With a background in psychology and a passion for holistic healing, he offers a compassionate and individualised approach to therapy. Drawing from his diverse life experiences, Tom provides insights and support tailored to each client's unique journey towards well-being

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